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Groundwater Remediation, Water Pollution Technologies


It all started with the belief that ozone, one of nature’s most powerful oxidants, could be deployed as small gaseous bubbles throughout the pores of a contaminated soil matrix to immediately react with and destroy volatile organic contaminants.  From that belief, a new remediation method was born.

The ozone sparging process (C-Sparge™) employs nano- to micro-sized bubbles of air encapsulated ozone created by injecting an air-ozone mixture through invisible pores in KTI’s Spargepoints®.  Pressure-pulsing the microbubbles of air/ozone through soil and groundwater yields rapid clean-up of a host of contaminants by means of in-situ chemical reactions that leave only water and beneficial oxygen as byproducts:  O3 + 2H+ + e- ? O2 + 2H2O

Pulsing the air/ozone mixture enhances the process scrubbing capacity, gently pushes the bubbles through soil capillary pores, and by providing appropriately-sized bubbles, eliminates channeling.

In-situ ozone sparging treats a wide variety of contaminants:  Saturated hydrocarbons such as petroleum hydrocarbons (alkanes); MTBE; 1,4 dioxane; chlorinated ethanes (1,1,1 TCA, DCA); and unsaturated hydrocarbons such as chlorinated ethenes (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC); BTEX; methylbenzenes; chlorinated phenols (PCP, DCP, etc.); energetic (RDX, HMX); polycyclic aromatic hydrocargons (PAH); PCBs; pesticides such as Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin.


  •  Wide variety of treatable contaminants
  • Low Capital equipment/operating costs
  • Requires standard 120 VAC household current
  • Minimal installation site disturbance; low site profile
  • In-situ rapid destruction of targeted compounds
  • Clean reaction; no hazardous byproducts
  • No vapor control necessary
  • Pulsed microbubble oxidant injection ensures maximum contaminant contact

Example  System:


¾ or 1 HP (2-5 SCFM) continuous service compressor     
8-16 gr/hr (0.42-0.84 lbs/day) ozone output
Delivery pressure up to 75 psig
6-24 sparging zones
PSA oxygen concentrator
PLC controlled
3/8” – ½” carrier tubing
7 Panel dimensions:
Gas Panel: 43”W x 29.5”H x 12”D
Oxygen Panel: 18”W x 27”H x 10”D


KTI constructs a wide variety of larger mobile and
stationary modular Perozone® and C-Sparger®
oxidant injection systems:
 Ozone:  1.5 to 50+ lbs/day
 Scroll compressors:  3.0 to 30+ hp
 Zones:  As many as needed for your site
                            Multiple points per zone
Trailers include climate control.
Optional telemetry and maintenance plans

Always…exemplary equipment and site support

Trailer and wall-mount rental systems available

? 40 - 90°F and less than 80% relative humidity
UL LISTED: US and Canada #E241880

Perozone®, C-Sparger®  and Spargepoint® are registered trademarks of Kerfoot Technologies, Inc.

The apparatus and methods are covered by one or more of the following patents:  U.S. Patent Nos. 5,855,775; 6,083,407; 6,284,143; 6,306,296; 6,312,605; 6,436,285; 6,447,676; 6,582,611; 6,596,161; 6,780,329; 6,805,798; 6,827,861.
EU Patent No. 0851843 (national countries).  Other U.S. and foreign patents pending.

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